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## Making their own rivers

The students of Grade 7 made their own rivers by using mud, clay and some water. Through this activity, students learned the concept of river formation.

According to National Geographic society (source: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/river/), rivers form when water falls down a mountain slope as a small stream. Rivers can have different sources, so they may be fed by water from rain or by melting snow and ice. Then, little by little, the small streams become bigger as more water flows through them.

The activity done by Grade 7 demonstrates this. By carefully pouring water from a small pail onto the mud and clay, students were able to observe how rivers naturally form.

The pictures above show Grade 7 students preparing the mud and clay by packing them together. They will, later on, pour some water onto the model. The students take note of the factors that affect the river’s shape, size, and appearance.

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## The Density Column Experiment

The Density Column Experiment is an activity that introduces the concept of Density to students of science. Density if defined, is mass per unit volume. In other words, it is the relationship between the mass of a substance and the space it takes up. In many cases, if the volume taken up is the same, the denser substance would be heavier.

In this experiment, the students are asked to stack liquids on top of each other. This is done by looking up their density and putting in the heavier liquids into the container first before the lighter ones. The denser the liquid, the more it should sink.

Students stack liquid on top of each other by first placing the heaviest liquid in the bottom of the container and carefully dripping the lighter liquid on top of it.

The students work in a group to make sure that the liquid in the bottom is not disturbed by the action of dropping the lighter liquids on top of it.

The effect is as shown in this picture. The lighter liquids, if not disturbed are able to sit on top of the heavier ones without mixing together.

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## CISM’s Science Guild

The science guild is an afterschool, mentor-based program provided by the school to promote an interest in the different areas of sciences. It is headed by Ms. Marian Asuncion and Ms. Charmaine dela Cruz. Club activities are held every Wednesday in room 402.

The aim of the science guild is not only to teach students basic scientific facts, it also aims to promote interest in the different areas of science through activities and experimentation

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## Making a River System Model

A river system is a number of interconnected rivers that form because of the natural movement of water down a slope. It consists of the main river and different smaller rivers that drain into bodies of water such as a lake or the ocean. In this simple science activity, the students learned how natural river systems are formed through the use of a simple soil model.

The patterns formed are similar to those found in nature.

In this picture, a student is making the soil more compact by pushing on it with his hands. The purpose is so that the model somewhat resembles the natural compactness of soils found near rivers.

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## PAG-ASA Field Trip

PAGASA, which is also known as “The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical, and Astronomical Services Administration” is a government-mandated agency that provides information to the public in order to ensure the safety, well-being and economic security of the people of the Philippines. It also provides a wealth of information to the public to help them better understand meteorology, hydrology, climatology, astronomy and other geophysical sciences.

Weather prediction by the use of different computers

Grade 8 and Grade 9 students, as well as their teachers Ms. Madhumita Saini and Ms. Marian Asuncion,  went to PAGASA to learn and understand how the organization predicts weather.

The students were accompanied by two of their science teachers

It is important for students to understand how weather is predicted because these predictions affect our day to day activities. Students should also understand that weather prediction is not as easy and as straightforward as it may appear to be.

One of the employees of PAGASA showed the students how a tipping bucket recorder worked. It is a rain gauge and it’s considered as one of the most traditional tools used for weather station applications.

The Grade 9 students then learned how to correlate the weather predictions to benefit people with heart anomalies.

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## Heat Transfer: Conduction, Convection and Radiation

Three different experiments were conducted by Grade 8 students to demonstrate heat transfer through conduction, convection, and radiation.

Conduction

To see the evidence of conduction, a spoon was heated by the use of boiling water. The difference in temperature of the boiling water, as well as the spoon, caused heat transfer between the two objects. After some time, the water and the spoon had the same temperature.

The spoon being heated up using boiling water

Convection

Convection is another method of heat transfer. It is due to the movement of a fluid (liquid or gas) between areas of different temperatures. In the experiment, the circular movement of the pencil shavings showed convection currents that occurred in hot water.

In this experiment, the spoon was removed and pencil shavings were placed into heated water. Due to the difference in temperatures of water from varying depths (surface/bottom), convection current occurred as evidence of the movement of the pencil shavings.

This experiment was done by asking students to get close to the heat source. Students could feel the heat radiated by the hot plate.

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## Measuring an Equilibrium Constant through Titration

In order to understand how a system achieves equilibrium, we need to measure the concentration of reactants and products of a chemical reaction. To do this, IBDP Chemistry Grade 12 students used a common laboratory method known as Titration.

For this experiment, the following reversible chemical reaction was investigated:

Ethanol + Ethanoic Acid  Ethyl Ethanoate + Water

The picture shows the chemicals used for the experiment: Ethanol, Ethyl Ethanoate, Hydrochloric Acid and Water

The picture above shows liquids being measured out from a burette.  The boiling tubes were stoppered as soon as the needed amounts of liquids were transferred into them.

Student made sure to stopper all boiling tubes to prevent evaporation of the liquids inside

Through titration, it is possible to get the concentration of the reactants (ethanol, ethanoic acid) and products (ethyl ethanoate, water) by using an acid to catalyze the reaction. In the case of the experiment, a common acid, known as hydrochloric acid was used.

Student using NaOH as the titrant to measure the concentration of the liquids in the erlenmeyer flasks.

However, the reaction of ethanol and ethanoic acid, even with the aid of a catalyst was very slow.  It took the students approximately a whole week to finish the experiment.

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## CISM Science Guild Participates in the 2nd Philippine Biology Olympiad 2019: SISID

Ateneo de Manila University (ADMU) hosted the 2nd Philippine Biology Olympiad (PBO) 2Ol9: Sisid last February 23 to 24, 2O19 at the AdMU Campus in Quezon City. A total of 370 participants from 98 high schools all over the Philippines arrived at the Ateneo de Manila University campus to join the two-day program of Philippine Biology Olympiad (PBO) 2019: SISID which determined the country’s four delegates to compete at the International Biology Olympiad (IBO) in Szeged, Hungary. Two major events were Quiz Bee and the Laboratory Skills. Supplementary activities were poster making, facilitated big group discussions, symposiums, and amazing race as the culminating activity. All these activities aim to foster camaraderie among participants, enhance the students’ interest, passion, and awareness on issues in specific learning area in the Biological Sciences.

Four (4) students from our school participated in this year’s PBO 2019: SISID:
Matthew Lawrence Tan (G11PB)

Congratulations to these four amazing students who actively participated and indeed gave their best in the said event. You have proved that success isn’t always measured in numbers. It is measured by the strong will, the breadth of your hopes and the way you handle challenges along the way. Special thanks to my co-moderator and CISM’s MS Science teacher, Ms. Madhumita Saini and to the entire Science Team. Kudos!

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## The “Visking” Tubing Experiment

The human body is a complex system that consists of varying organ structures working and indefatigably functioning in sync together to maintain equilibrium, thus, to sustain life.

IB DP Year 2 students took their first on-hand experiment on digestion, called “Visking Tubing Experiment”. One of the best ways to learn and understand the processes that take place in the body is by modelling. This experiment provides a visual way of demonstrating diffusion through a semi-permeable membrane. It was used to model the human gut as well as to investigate the effect of the enzyme called amylase on starch. Two standard macro molecules tests were done. The first test done is called the Iodine Test. It is done to determine the presence of starch in certain foods or substance. The second test done was the Benedict’s test, which is used to test for the presence of reducing sugars, such as glucose.

The Visking Tubing Experiment set-up

Benedict’s solution, used to test for the reducing or simple sugars.

All samples were taken and were submerged in hot water bath. Benedict’s reagent starts out aqua-blue in color. As it is heated in the presence of reducing sugars, it turns yellow, green, orange or brick-red. The final color of the reagent signifies the concentration of reducing sugar. Brick red signifies a high concentration of glucose.

Iodine solution

Iodine solution, used to test for starch. A blue-black color results if starch is present. Otherwise, the original brown color will will be retained.

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## Organic Ice Cream

During the Science Week Grade 10 made their own versions of Organic Ice Cream in line with their topic in Chemistry which is Organic Chemistry. They tried to make variety of flavors from using fruits, nuts, and green tea. They also observed the temperature required to form the ice cream texture, use of salt to lower the temperature and keep the ice from melting.They all enjoyed this fun activity.